I clean my filters before every job, to maximize my vacuum, to remove as much water as physically possible from the carpet.
Drying time is between 4 to 6 hours but conservatively within 24 hours.
Here is what you can do, to get your carpet dry even faster:
1. The warmer you keep your house, the faster the carpet will dry. A house that is 72º F (22º C) will dry half again as fast as a house that is 63º F (17º C).
2. Air holds very little water. When the air has filled with moisture, the carpet stops drying. Increase air flow, and the carpet will dry faster. This can be accomplished by turning on the air exchange or opening windows. Even on a cold rainy day, the carpet will dry quickly if the house is kept warm, with just one window open a few inches on each end of the house.
3. Fans pointed at the carpet will circulate the moist air away from the carpet, so dry air can replace it.
4. Air conditioners and dehumidifiers will pull moisture out of the air, and are useful if the windows are closed.
5. Avoid putting towels or sheets on the carpet, because this will restrict air flow and slow drying.